Guyaju Ruins, which showing ancient cave-dwellings, is located in Dongmenying Village Zhangshanying Town at Yanqing District, the north suburb of Beijing. It is known as the largest cave dwelling ruins that found in China by far.
With at least more than one thousand years of history, the caves were made on a precipitous cliff by a group of ancient people who were not recorded in any history books. Some archeologists believe that it was built in the last period of Tang dynasty by a tribe of north minority called Xi to escape the pressure and bandage from Liao dynasty. There are totally 170 caves with over 350 rooms. The artificial rooms were arranged one by one on three side steep cliffs in the gorge. They are big or small in size, round or square in shape and face different directions. The biggest one is about 20 meters in length while the smallest only 3 to 4 meters long.
Most of the caves have three rooms with the living room in the middle, kitchen in the right and storehouse in the left. While inside the caves, there are many simple living facilities as the stone kang, stone pillow, stone window, alcove, air hole and equipment for collecting rainwater in the living room; flue and the top of a kitchen range in the kitchen room and stone table in the storehouse. Besides, there are also caves used to keep horse. Each room could keep three or four horses.
Those cave-dwellings are two-storeyed buildings. Rooms upstairs communicate with downstairs by steps, stone ladders and trestles. They are parallel and well arranged in layout. Among them, a palace-like two-storeyed cave called Xis Mansion flanked by small rooms is located in the middle and has six finely caved stelae and a broad stone table in the big hall. Guyaju Ruins is really a mysterious and enchanting place for visitors. However, about the questions as who built the cave; when did it built; why and how to build it, the historians and archeologists still have not any certain and clear answer. It is still a riddle that under studies and we hope they could uncover the mysterious veil in a near future.