Kong Miao, the Confucius Temple, is now the Capital Museum and houses a display on the culture and history of Beijing. Located on Guozijian Street inside Anding Gate, the Temple of Confucius in Beijing is the place where people paid homage to Confucius during the Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty from 1271 to 1911.
The Temple of Confucius was initially built in 1302 that has possess a history up to more than 600 years and additions were made during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Emperor QianLong roofed it with yellow colored glaze tile. And later during GuangXu period, it renovated greatly and on the fifth year of Republic of China it was completed all. It has a total area of 22,000 square meters. It is the second largest temple constructed for Confucius, the greatest thinker and educationalist in ancient China, ranking only behind the Temple of Confucius in Qufu, Shandong Province.
This temple consists of four courtyards. The main structures include Xianshi Gate (Gate of the First Teacher), Dacheng Gate (Gate of Great Accomplishment), Dacheng Hall (Hall of Great Accomplishment) and Chongshengci (Worship Hall). Dacheng Hall is the main building in the temple, where the memorial ceremony for Confucius was often held. Inside the temple one can see that 198 stone tablets are positioned on either side of the front courtyard, containing 51,624 names of Jinshi (the advanced scholars) of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. Also 14 stone stele pavilions of the Ming and Qing dynasties hold the precious historical information of ancient China.
In the temple, you can also find remarkable pictures like two flying dragons playing a pearl among clouds, which are believed to be used only in the imperial palaces because dragon stands for emperor in ancient China. From those, it is easy to imagine the importance of the Confucius Temple in the feudal society of China.
Life as a Legendary
The sources for Confucius' life are later and do not carefully separate fiction and fact. Thus it is wise to regard much of what is known of him as legendary. Confucius was born in 551 B. C. in Changping Country of the Lu State and died in the year 479 B.C. His name was Qiu and styled Zhongni. Under the education of his mother, Yan Zhengzai Confucius was interested in rites from childhood and practicing the rites by displaying utensils at only six years old. When Confucius was 17 years old in 546 B. C., his mother Yan zhengzai was died and was buried with his father in one tomb .As same time, he was refused to take part in banquet by Yanghu, the officer of Jisi. When he was 19 years old, Confucius learnt to play the music of Wen Wang Zao from the master Xiang for a long time until he understood the music meaning. At thirty, he stood firm. At sixty, his ear was obedient organ. At seventy, he could follow what his heart desired without transgressing what was right. He studied extensively and was familiar with the traditional literature of all times. And was an inspiring teacher who taught tirelessly.
According to historical records, Confucius was mostly self-educated as a youth. Later he became a teacher, philosopher and political theorist, but was unable to assume a worthwhile position where he could put his theories into practice. After years of traveling, he returned home to continue teaching until his death at the age of 72. Although during his lifetime he had little influence outside his own band of disciples, Confucianism has been the dominant philosophical system in China for over 2000 years.
Confucius was a great philosopher. He created the school of Confucian thought, allowing others to learn about his own philosophy of benevolence towards others. He believed that the wealthy and powerful should show consideration for the common people. They should resist exploiting civilians in order to avoid conflicts between the ruling class and commoners. Confucius was especially opposed to tyranny and random killings. His philosophy also emphasized the importance of kindness, prudence, good manners, and righteousness. The principles of Confucianism had a great impact on Chinese feudal society, which lasted over two thousand years. As a result, Confucian teachings have permeated into modern Chinese life and culture.
Confucius was also a great educator. In a slave society, only those from noble families could go to school. Education was monopolized by the elite. Confucius changed this by opening private schools and recruiting disciples.He successfully brought education to the whole of society. It is said that Confucius advocated the pedagogic principles of no children should be left behind(н) and teaching students in accordance with their aptitude (ʩ). He asked the students to review their studies often. He said you could discover new things (truths) by studying the past. The attitude one has towards studying should also be sincere. He said to see knowledge as knowledge and ignorance as ignorance . One should combine studies with thoughtfulness.
It is said that in his later years Confucius edited ancient cultural books ShiShu. One particularly important book he edited was The Spring and Autumn, which has played an important role in preserving China's ancient culture.
Four Main Topics of Moral Teaching
One Represented Philosophy Subject Ren
Ren,benevolence, charity, humanity, love," kindness. The fundamental virtue of Confucianism. Confucius defines it as "A rn," "love others."
Confucius' social philosophy largely revolves around the concept of ren, compassion or loving others. Cultivating or practicing such concern for others involved deprecating oneself. This meant being sure to avoid artful speech or a flattery manner that would create a false impression and lead to self-aggrandizement. Those who have cultivated ren are, on the contrary, simple in manner and slow of speech. For Confucius what you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others. He regards devotion to parents and elder brothers and sisters as the most basic form of promoting the interests of others before one's own and teaches that such altruism can be accomplished only by those who have learned self-discipline.
While ritual forms often have to do with the more narrow relations of family and clan, ren, however, is to be practiced broadly and informs one's interactions with all people. Confucius warns those in power that they should not oppress or take for granted even the lowliest of their subjects. You may rob the Three Armies of their commander, but you cannot deprive the humblest peasant of his opinion. Confucius regards loving others as a calling and a mission for which one should be ready to die.
Yi, "right conduct, morality, duty to one's neighbor," righteousness. Li, "profit, gain, advantage": Not a proper motive for actions affecting others. The idea that profit is the source of temptation to do wrong is the Confucian ground of the later official disparagement of commerce and industry. The Master said, "The gentleman (chn tzu or Jun Zi) understands yi. The small man understands li." Li, "propriety, good manners, politeness, ceremony, worship."
Xiao-- Filial Piety
Xiao, "to honor one's parents," filial piety. Yi may be broken down into: zhong, doing one's best, conscientiousness, "loyalty"; and shu, "reciprocity," altruism, consideration for others, "what you don't want yourself, don't do to others". The term filial piety refers to the extreme respect that Chinese children are supposed to show their parents. It involves many different things including taking care of the parents, burying them properly after death, bringing honor to the family, and having a male heir to carry on the family name. Practicing these ideals is a very important part of Chinese culture. Therefore, one would expect that filial piety would be incorporated into the major religions of China as it has been.